Friday, December 2, 2011

American Indians: Answers to Today's Questions - Jack Utter 477 pgs

"Who is Indian? Who is a Native American? What are Indian self-determination and sovereignty? What defines an Indian tribe?  These and more than one hundred other questions are asked and answered in this text."

*This is a text about the Native Americans in general.  Another good book for young adult readers is "ACLU: The Rights of American Indians and Their Tribes".  Both would be helpful in a secondary Social Studies class, too.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

The Dance Boots - by Linda LeGarde Grover 172 pages

"Linda LeGarde Grover portrays an Ojibwe community struggling to follow traditional ways of life in the face of a relentlessly changing world.  In the title story an aunt recounts the harsh legacy of Indian boarding schools that tried to break the indigenous culture. In doing so she passes on to her niece the Ojibwe tradition of honoring elders through their stories.  With its attention to the Ojibwe language, customs, and history, this unique collection of riveting stories illuminates the very nature of storytelling."


A Boy Called Slow - Joseph Bruchac 32 pgs

"As a young Lakota Sioux boy, Slow was given his childhood name because he was deliberate and thoughtful in most of what he undertook.  Slow yearns for the special vision or manly deed that will inspire his permanent, adult name. Encouraged by splendid stories of his father's bravery, wisdom and leadership, Slow focuses his energy on becoming a warrior. Friends gradually begin to associate his name with careful deliberation.  From then on, his courage and determination were recognized and he became known as Sitting Bull, a Native American Chief whose name and deeds are well known.  Bruchac s sensitively told history of Sitting Bull's coming-of-age reassures young chldren that success comes through effort, not birth."


We Are at Home: Pictures of the Ojibwe People -Bruce White 245 pgs

"In this collection of more than 200 stunning and storied photographs, ranging from daguerreotypes to studio portraits to snapshots, historian Bruce White explores historical images taken of Ojibwe people through 1950. From the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, photographers, most of them white, took thousands of pictures of the Ojibwe people of northern Minnesota. Anthropologist White's book reproduces hundreds of these photographs and describes the circumstances under which they were taken and the background and approach of the photographers. White people, he argues, while not ill-intentioned, photographed the Ojibwe in a way that reinforced the photographer's cultural view of Indians as exotic others, while Ojibwe photographing their own people provided a more accurate cultural context."

Native Musicians in the Groove- Vincent Schilling 115 pgs

"The music of these talented artists transcends borders and cultures to speak directly to the hearts and minds of listeners. But it was not always easy for them to reach their goals.  From the melodic notes of a classical guitar or the wailing of an electric guitar to country tunes and punk rock, these musicians deliver. They offer a wide selection of musical styles as diverse as the music industry itself. Read about the lives of these outstanding performers who represent the fresh new sounds from Native America today."
Remember: lyrics are nothing but poetry set to music-these Native artist are poets along with being musicians!

**ch 3: Crystal Shawnda (Ojibwe) country music singer
**ch 8: Mato Nanji (Nakota Sioux) guitarist-lead singer of band Indigenous


MN Lang stardard   Show how teh author develops the point of view of these artists as they share their life stories.

Native Women of Courage - Kelly Fournel 84 pgs

"This book profiles ten outstanding women leaders in the Native community. All of these successful, trailblazing women are stellar role models who have raised the profile of indigenous culture in North America. From heroines of the past to women making history today, this work of non-fiction reminds readers of the extraordinary contributions of Native American women to our daily lives and to our country's social fabric."
**Chapter 9 features White Earth (MN) Winona LaDuke (Anishinaabeg) - Author, environmentalist, vice-presidential candidate**


Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Grandmother's Dreamcatcher -Becky Ray McCain 32 pgs

"While Kimmy's parents look for a house close to Daddy's job, Kimmy stays with her Chippewa grandmother. The bad dreams she has had still bother her. Grandmother knows just what to do; she and Kimmy craft a dreamcatcher of bent wood, sinew, feathers, and beads, while Grandmother tells Kimmy the legend of the first about dreamcatchers which allows the sleeper to have only sweet dreams."


Sootface: An Ojibwa Cinderella Story-retold by Robert D. San Souci 32 pgs

A retelling of Cinderella from an Ojibwe tale.  "Older sisters made their youngest sister do all the work. When the flames from the cooking fire singed her hair or burned her skin, they laughed and called her Sootface.
While she worked, Sootface dreamed that one day she would find a husband. Then a mighty warrior with the power to make himself invisible decides to marry. Only a woman with a kind and honest heart could see him, and be his bride.  Her courage and good nature bring her the husband she has longed for. "


*possible uses: Standard (compare and contrast 2 or more versions of a story including a text by or about a MN Native American.  This is a Native retelling of Cinderella.  Choose another version and use Sootface to compare/contrast characters, setting, plot, conflict, etc).

Friday, May 13, 2011

Jingle Dancer -by Cynthia Leitich Smith 32 pgs

"Jenna, a contemporary Muscogee (Creek) girl in Oklahoma, wants to honor a family tradition by jingle dancing at the next powwow. But where will she find enough jingles for her dress?  Jenna dreams of having a dress with jingles for the upcoming powwow, but as her grandmother notes, there aren't any extras and there isn't enough time to make them. Jenna is undeterred; she only needs four rows of jingles to make the proper sound. She visits family and friends and finally gets enough jingles to complete her regalia for the dance."  *Contemporary native character*

*although this isn't set in MN it does center around the jingle dress which, according to tradition, originated from Minnesota (click here for info)

Author created teaching guide (click here!)

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Shannon: An Ojibway Dancer-by Sandra King 48 pgs

"A twelve-year-old Ojibwa Indian living in Minneapolis, Minnesota, learns about her tribe's traditional costumes from her grandmother and gets ready to dance at a powwow"

*Although this book is almost 20 years old (with outdated information: ie -schools and stores which no longer exist) it is a good resource for students to understand the preparation before powwow dancing*

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

The Soul of an Indian and other writings from Ohiyesa - edited by Kent Nerburn 96 pgs

"Ohiyesa, a Dakota Indian also known as Charles Alexander Eastman, is one of America’s most fascinating and overlooked individuals. Born in Minnesota in 1858, he obtained postgraduate degrees (attending Dartmouth College and medical school at Boston University), and advised U.S. presidents. This beautifully packaged reissue contains Ohiyesa’s insights on spirit, the human experience, and white culture’s impact on Native American culture."

*This book contains excerpts of Ohiyesa's (Charles Alexander Eastman) several books.  Could work for older elementary students as well.  This is a wonderful and thought provoking book by a Native person. Be sure to read about his accomplishments outside of being a writer!

Friday, May 6, 2011

A Life in Two Worlds -Betty Powell Skoog 113 pgs

"Betty Powell Skoog was raised in the traditional ways of her Ojibwe grandmother in northern MN and Canada.  As white settlers moved into the area, their growing influence changed Betty's way of life.  Her tales represent how the Indian people lived and adapted their way of life during the first half of the 20th century."

Friday, April 29, 2011

North Country: The Making of Minnesota- by Mary Lethert Wingerd 448 pgs

"In North Country: The Making of Minnesota, Mary Lethert Wingerd unlocks the complex origins of the state—origins that have often been ignored in favor of legend and a far more benign narrative of immigration, settlement, and cultural exchange. Moving from the earliest years of contact between Europeans and the indigenous peoples of the western Great Lakes region to the era of French and British influence during the fur trade and beyond, Wingerd charts how for two centuries prior to official statehood Native people and Europeans in the region maintained a hesitant, largely cobeneficial relationship."

*at over 400+ pages this text would be a helpful reference to accompany other books by native authors on MN history.  Many MN standards could use this text as a compare/contrast-many primary sources.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Lana's Lakota Moons -by Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve 127 pgs

"This contemporary story about two Lakota girls and their Laotian friend illuminates for children and adults the Lakota meaning of family, friendship, life, and death. In the Lakota way, Lana and her cousin Lori are like sisters, growing up together under the caring eyes of an extended family of parents and grandparents. Also like sisters, they have their share of squabbles and fights, but when they meet a new girl at school who has recently arrived from Laos, they are drawn closer by their shared friendship, their discoveries about cultural differences, and their experience with loss. Throughout the book, the grandparents teach the "sisters" Lakota traditions (click here to see MN history of Lakota) and beliefs while explaining the meaning of them to the reader."

Children of the Indian Boarding Schools- by Holly Littlefield (Picture the American Past series) 48 pgs

"In this book that is part of the "Picture the American Past" series, Littlefield describes the physical, emotional and cultural horrors these relocated children faced, the strategies they used to survive and how today's schools are working to preserve the culture. Each page is filled with monochromatic historical pictures and few words. Though simple in sentence structure, these books don't ignore harsh facts and they choose poignant quotes from children to illustrate situations.
In 1879, the United States government began to take Indian children from their families and reservations and place them in boarding schools where they would learn English and Christianity. In many cases, the parents of these children had no choice but to comply with the government officials"
Indian Boarding schools in MN include: Pipestone and Morris.
**this is a developementally appropriate book for younger elementary kids, however, it does not delve deep enough into the true sadness of these Native children being separated from their homes, families, and ultimately their culture.  A good place to start teaching about boarding schools, but please be sure to focus on these realities mentioned**

MN Lang Art standard    use these naratives of the childrens' experience of Indian Boarding schools with another text-one written by a Native person.  Show, through compare/contrast the language and word choice, that this text seems to gloss over the pain and trauma of boarding schools.

Monday, April 25, 2011

The Sacred Harvest: Ojibway Wild Rice Gathering- by Gordon Regguinti 48 pgs

Glen Jackson, Jr., an eleven-year-old Ojibway Indian in northern Minnesota, goes with his father to harvest wild rice, the sacred food of his people

Ininatig's Gift of Sugar: Traditional Native Sugarmaking- by Laura Waterman Wittstock 44 pgs

Describes how Indians have relied on the sugar maple tree for food and tells how an Anishinabe Indian in Minnesota continues his people's traditions by teaching students to tap the trees and make maple sugar.

Through Dakota Eyes: Narrative Accounts of the Minnesota Indian War of 1862- by Gary Clayton Anderson (Editors) G. Anderson, Alan R. Woolworth 328 pgs

This collection of thirty-six narratives presents the Dakota Indians' experiences during a conflict previously known chiefly from the viewpoints of non-Indians.

A good resource for the 1862 US -Dakota War.  SO MUCH information here!  Great for Social Studies teachers to use!


While the Locust Slept: A Memoir by Peter Razor 200 pgs

"Peter Razor chronicles his survival of abuse and bigotry at the State Public School at Owatonna in the 1930s and the brutal farm indenture that followed. Disclosing his story through flashbacks and relying on research from his own case files, Razor pieces together the shattered fragments of his boyhood into a memoir
This debut draws on personal memories and official records to track Razor's painful yet triumphant years as a ward of the state of Minnesota. At 15, having endured prejudice, isolation, neglect and terrible physical abuse by the staff, he was sent to work for a local farmer. Via a series of detailed flashbacks, Razor recounts his oppressive childhood."

*Some mature content*  It will be helpful to aid secondary students through the chapters as there are flashbacks intermingled throughout the text, and might be confusing for kids if they don't understand that the author is switching between his time at the State School in his youth and his time as a farm hand in his older teen years.

Ojibway Heritage- by Basil Johnston 171 pgs

"Ojibway mythology is as rich in meaning, as broad, as deep, and as innately appealing as the mythologies of Greece, Rome, and other Western civilizations. In Ojibway Heritage Basil Johnston introduces his people's ceremonies, rituals, songs, dances, prayers, arid legends. Conveying the sense of wonder and mystery at the heart of the Ojibway experience, Johnston describes the creation of the universe, followed by that of plants and animals and human beings, and the paths taken by the latter. These stories are to be read, enjoyed, and freely interpreted. Their authorship is perhaps most properly attributed to the tribal storytellers who have carried on the oral tradition that Johnston records and preserves in this book."

Rising Voices- by Arlene Hirschfelder, Beverly R. Singer 125 pgs

"Through more than 60 poems and essays, contemporary Native American children and young adults share their feelings about themselves, their people and their land. While some selections in this anthology are reverent in tone, revealing a deep respect for nature, family and tradition, other writings emerge as protests against prejudice and oppression."  These poems, stories, songs, and essays cover a span of over 100 years--1887-1990

This would be a good starting point in a poetry unit for secondary Language Arts classes and also to use as templates for the 6+1 Traits.

MN Lang Arts standards: can be used for many standards.  Choose a piece, all of which are written by Native people, and compare/contrast to a textbook.  For example, use poem on pg 93 to contrast a textbook definition of the experience at Indian Boarding schools.

Monday, April 18, 2011

Do All Indians Live in Tipis?: 101 Questions and Answers from the National Museum of the American Indian 224 pgs

Introduction by Wilma Mankiller -"As the title implies, many Americans are still surprisingly misinformed with regard to Native American cultures. This highly accessible and informative book aims to dispel some of the major myths and stereotypes still surrounding Native people in the United States and Canada. By no means claiming to be comprehensive, the straightforward questions were compiled from actual phone calls, emails, letters, and in-person visits to a major branch of the National Museum of the American Indian. The Native American writers who answered them did so concisely with hints of humor and an abundance of research and experience."

*some topics referring to MN-mound building, dream catchers, native dwellings and food, popular myths, and Indian gaming-Great resource book.  One of my new favorite nonfiction texts to recommend to anyone!  Just GET a copy!!  This text could be used for most of the MN standards!

The Ojibwe -by Michelle Levine 56 pgs

The Ojibwe people originally grew crops, gathered wild rice, and tapped maple trees for their sap.  The chapters include:  Beginnings, Ojibwe Lifeways, European Arrivals, Life in Modern Times.  This book's reading level is at about 3-4th grade.  A very accessable nonfiction book.

Sister Nations: Native American Women Writing on Community: by Heid E. Erdrich (and various other editor) 230 pgs

"This text includes some fiction and a few essays, the majority of this collection presents poetry. All of the contributions are written by Native American women and in some way reflect on the relations of women to their community. The writings reflect on transformation in the female experience, the theme of inner strength, reactions to stereotypes and simplified images, or love."

*some mature content*
*various writers, not all MN specific*

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Sacagawea -by: Lise Erdrich, Julie Buffalohead (Illustrator) 32pgs

Lise Erdrich, a member of the Turtle Mountain band of Plains-Ojibway, and artist Buffalohead, who is of Ponca heritage, retell the story of the famous Shoshone woman.  A great timeline and map of the expedition's route are included (maybe start with the timeline and map at the end as background information for your students). 
A good extension after reading this book would be to make connections in writing responses: How would you feel if you were taken from your family?, What can you infer about the character traits of Sacagawea?, etc.

Monday, March 28, 2011

Living Our Language: Ojibwe Tales and Oral Histories- Anton Treuer 272 pgs

"Based on interviews Treuer conducted with ten elders - this anthology presents the elders' stories transcribed in Ojibwe with English translation on facing pages. These stories contain a wealth of information, including oral histories of the Anishinaabe people, personal reminiscences, educational tales, and humorous anecdotes. Treuer's translations of these stories preserve the speakers' personalities, allowing their voices to emerge from the page."

Friday, February 25, 2011

Spirit Car: Journey to a Dakota Past-Diane Wilson 216 pgs

"This moving narrative recounts Wilson's attempt to trace her Dakota heritage, sparked by her usually reticent mother's story of having been left for two years at a mission boarding school on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Though her own family stories have been forgotten or repressed, Wilson relies on carefully researched historical accounts and her own imagination to depict how her Native American ancestors survived the Dakota War of 1862."
Diane Wilson has a unique perspective in this book which would be an excellent jump off for a secondary English class as they study (6+1 Traits in writing) Voice.

Honor the Grandmothers: Dakota and Lakota Women Tell Their Stories -by Sarah Penman (Compiler) 147 pgs

"In Honor the Grandmothers: Dakota and Lakota Women Tell Their Stories, editor Sarah Penman, a journalist who reports on the experiences of Native Americans, preserves four oral histories that contribute to our understanding of Indian life past and present. According to tradition, it is the responsibility of Dakota and Lakota grandmothers to teach tribal history. During the course of their long lives, the four women witnessed tremendous change in the circumstances of their peoples."

*MN specific parts: Iola Columbus of the Dakota tribe was the first woman in Minnesota to be elected to a tribal chair. She founded a Grandmothers' Society to encourage older women to pass on traditions and ceremonies not only to Native Americans, but also to interpret them for other Americans*

Lang Arts: compare/contrast the text regarding Crazy Horse (pg31-33) w/ another text on the same topic

Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940 - Brenda Child 143 pgs

"Boarding School Seasons offers a revealing look at the strong emotional history of Indian boarding school experiences in the first half of the twentieth century. At the heart of this book are the hundreds of letters written by parents, children, and school officials at Haskell Institute in Kansas and the Flandreau School in South Dakota. These revealing letters show how profoundly entire families were affected by their experiences."

*many chapters about MN Native Americans, but also includes narratives of other tribes and various Indian Boarding schools through the U.S.

Native American Literature: A Brief Introduction and Anthology-by Gerald Vizenor 368 pgs

This anthology makes available a range of Native American writings from the early nineteenth century to the present. Genres covered include fiction, poetry, auotobiography, and drama.

*Certain chapters showcase MN native writers which include: biographies, fiction, and poetry*

Portage Lake: Memories of an Ojibwe Childhood -Maude Kegg 272 pgs

"Maude Kegg's memories build a bridge to a time when building birch-bark wigwams and harvesting turtles were still part of the everyday life of a native girl in the mid-west. In this bilingual book, this elder of the Minnesota Anishinaabe reminisces about her childhood. An English translation of each story appears on pages facing the original Ojibwe text, and has a beautiful full Ojibwe-English glossary with study aids"

MN Lang Arts standard  compare/contrast treatment of good and evil in the traditional tale on page 29

Monday, February 21, 2011

Pipestone: My Life in an Indian Boarding School - Adam Fortunate Eagle 190 pgs

"Best known as a leader of the Indian takeover of Alcatraz Island in 1969, Adam Fortunate Eagle now offers an unforgettable memoir of his years as a young student at Pipestone Indian Boarding School in Minnesota.
Fortunate Eagle attended Pipestone between 1935 and 1945, just as Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier's pluralist vision was reshaping the federal boarding school system to promote greater respect for Native cultures and traditions. Telling this story in the voice of his younger self, the author takes us on a journey into his childhood and the inner world of the boarding school. Along the way, he shares anecdotes of dormitory culture, student pranks, and warrior games, along with escaping some family dysfunction."  In this rare firsthand account, Fortunate Eagle lives up to his reputation as a "contrary warrior" by giving another view of Indian boarding schools.
**This book would be excellent to pair with another text of boarding school narratives to provide multiple and differing experiences**.

Friday, February 18, 2011

Mishomis Book - Edward Benton-Banai 114 pgs

"The Mishomis Book documents the history, traditions, and culture of the Ojibway people through stories and myths passed down through generations. Written by Ojibway educator and spiritual leader Edward Benton-Banai, The Mishomis Book draws from the traditional teachings of tribal elders to instruct young readers about Ojibway creation stories and legends, the origin and importance of the Ojibway family structure and clan system, the Midewiwin religion, the construction and use of the water drum and sweat lodge, and modern Ojibway history.
Written for readers from all cultures-but especially for Ojibway and Native youth-The Mishomis Book provides an introduction to Ojibway culture and an understanding of the sacred Midewiwin teachings, aiming to protect this knowledge to the next generation."

Possible use: Standard (compare and contrast flood stories from different cultures-use ch 5.)

The Birchbark House- by Louise Erdrich 244 pgs

"Omakayas, or Little Frog, lives on an island in Lake Superior. It is 1850 and the lives of the Ojibwe have returned to a familiar rhythm: they build their birchbark houses in the summer, go to the ricing camps in the fall to harvest and feast, and move to their cozy cedar log cabins near the town of LaPointe before the first snows.

Routines of Omakayas's days are interrupted by a surprise visit from a group of desperate and mysterious people. From them, she learns that all their lives may drastically change. The chimookomanag, or white people, want Omakayas and her people to leave their island in Lake Superior and move farther west. Omakayas realizes that something so valuable, so important that she never knew she had it in the first place, is in danger: Her home. Her way of life." 

*Don't forget to check out this book's sequels: The Game of Silence and The Porcupine Year!

The Good Path: Ojibwe Learning and Activity Book for Kids-Thomas Peacock and Marlene Wisure 127 pgs

Kids of all cultures journey through time with the Ojibwe people as their guide to the 9 values of the Good Path: honor the creator, elders, women, and plant/animals, being peaceful, kind, moderate, and courageous. Through traditional native tales, hear about Grandmother Moon, the mysterious Megis shell, and the souls of plants and animals. Through Ojibwe history, learn how trading posts, treaties, and warfare affected Native Americans.

Wednesday, February 2, 2011

John Beargrease: Legend of Minnesota's North Shore- Daniel Lancaster 173 pgs

"John Beargrease (1862–1910), the son of an Anishinabe chief, hauled the mail by dogsled between pioneer communities along Minnesota’s tempestuous Lake Superior shore line. The annual John Beargrease Sled Dog Marathon is named in his honor.
. . . it was sometimes best to just keep going . . . pushing through three feet of snow, plowing over drifts six and seven feet deep, making their way among the boughs of the trees.
Daniel Lancaster follows the legendary Beargrease through the settlement and development of the North Shore."

**although this book has a lot of information, the author uses the term "half-breed" when referring to Beargrease at times.  This would be good for class discussion- is this term OK to use in historical perspective, or is it derogatory when used today?

Ojibwe in Minnesota- Anton Treuer 103 pgs

"Ojibwe scholar Anton Treuer traces thousands of years of the complicated history of the Ojibwe people—their economy, culture, and clan system and how these have changed throughout time, perhaps most dramatically with the arrival of Europeans into Minnesota territory.
Ojibwe in Minnesota covers the fur trade, the Iroquois Wars, and Ojibwe-Dakota relations; the treaty process and creation of reservations; and the systematic push for assimilation as seen in missionary activity, government policy, and boarding schools."
**I highly recommend any book by this author!**

*possible uses: Standard (compare/contrast a topic from this text to another.  For example, select a current newspaper article about MN Native American casinos, then use pages 54-59 in this text to compare/contrast ideas, vocabulary, ect.

Friday, January 14, 2011

Exploring the Fur Trade Routes of North America- Barbara Huck 285 pgs

"Introductory chapters explore the history of the fur trade, tracing the main routes the voyageurs (which included some MN Native peoples and those of mixed heritage) and traders followed as they headed westward (including Grand Portage, Pine City, Voyageurs National Park, and various sites along the Superior). Several sections have been written by avid canoeists. Generously illustrated with color photographs. Maps and detailed driving directions guide present-day travelers"

*various chapters-only certain ones detail MN*

Ojibwa Crafts - Carrie A. Lyford 216 pgs

This books describes in detail the traditional tribal ways of the Ojibwa (Chippewa) of the Great Lakes region.  This book includes: Maple Sugar making, Wild Rice harvesting, Birch Bark work, Tanning, Quill and bead work, Native dyes, and information on everyday neccessities such as shelter, foods, clothing and ceremonials.

Pushing the Bear: a Novel of the Trail of Tears – Diane Glancy 241 pgs

"Following the Native American belief that many voices are needed to tell a story, Glancy employs a multitude of narrators in this historical fictional piece about the Trail of Tears. There are the voices of Cherokee of all ages and clans, of white soldiers and preachers, and snatches from actual historical records. The central narrator, Maritole, emerges to tell her personal story of "pushing the bear," a dark heavy burden of anger, impending madness, physical distress and, above all, doubt in herself and her heritage as she perseveres in the grueling walk".

MN Lang Arts   This Native author used source materials about the Cherokee Trail of Tears and transformed the info into a new piece of wrok.  A great example of voice, as many characters' thoughts actions are used.  The reader gets a perspective of all sides.

Walking the Rez Road-Jim Northrup 175 pgs

 This is a book which alternate betwee short stories and poems featuring Luke Warmwater as a main character. Luke, who is a Vietnam veteran, is having difficulty 'surviving the peace' on a reservation where everyone is broke and where the tribal government seems to work against the interests of the reservation folk. Throughout Walking the Rez Road, the humor holds the people and their community together.
B&          (*some mature content)

MN Lang Arts standard  use poem on pg 164 to compare/contrast other texts of Vietnam/war.

MN Lang Arts standard   use poem on pg 14 to compare / contrast w/ another text on the same topic.

Night Flying Woman: An Ojibway Narrative -by Ignatia Broker 133 pgs

"Ignatia Broker recounts the life of her great-great-grandmother, Night Flying Woman, who was born in the mid-19th century and lived during a chaotic time of enormous change, uprootings, and loss for the Minnesota Ojibway. But this story also tells of her people's great strength and continuity. This popular book is also available on audiotape read by Debra Smith. An enrolled member of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa, she has performed her own poetry on a syndicated radio series on Native writers.
Ignatia Broker, who died in 1987, was a story-teller and teacher in the Ojibway tradition.".

MN Lang Arts standard  This novel is an excellent example of oral tradition and how it is used to create a work of literature.